As a business owner, protecting your brand is crucial for long-term success and that’s why you should go for trademark registration as soon as possible. One way to establish and safeguard your brand identity is by registering a trademark. In India, trademarks are registered under the Trademark Act, 2016, by the Controller General of Patents Designs and Trademarks, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk you through the step-by-step process of registering a trademark in India.

Section 1: Understanding the Importance of Trademark Registration

A trademark is a visual representation such as a word, logo, label, or design that distinguishes the goods or services of one business from those of another. Registering a trademark provides several benefits:

1.1 Exclusive Identity and Brand Reputation

When you register a trademark, you establish an exclusive identity for your business and safeguard your brand reputation. This legal registration grants you the right to use and promote your brand without concern for infringement by others.

1.2 Legal Protection and Infringement Suit

Only a registered trademark holder can initiate an infringement suit against any third party attempting to use a similar mark to pass off their own goods or services. Registration offers legal protection and empowers you to take legal action against infringers.

1.3 Tangible Asset and Economic Benefits

A registered trademark serves as a valuable asset, capable of being licensed, sold, purchased, or even used as collateral to secure a loan. It brings economic advantages to your business and augments its overall value.

1.4 Credibility and Quality Assurance

A registered trademark elevates your brand’s credibility and provides customers with an assurance of the quality of your goods or services. This fosters trust and loyalty among consumers, ultimately driving business growth.

Section 2: Steps to Register a Trademark in India

The process of registering a trademark involves several sequential steps, as detailed below:

2.1 Step 1: Conduct a Trademark Search

Before submitting a trademark registration application, a thorough trademark search is crucial. This search assesses the uniqueness and distinctiveness of your proposed trademark, identifying any existing trademarks that might conflict with yours. The official Trade Marks Registry website enables you to perform this search and confirm your trademark’s availability.

2.2 Step 2: File the Trademark Application

After confirming your trademark’s uniqueness, proceed with submitting the trademark application. Form TM-A must be filed, either online or physically at the relevant Trademark Registry Office based on your jurisdiction.

Include all necessary details, such as a description of the goods or services associated with the trademark. If you have been using the trademark prior to filing the application, you can assert prior use by submitting an affidavit and evidence of its usage.

2.3 Step 3: Examination of the Application

The Registrar will examine the filed application, usually within 30 days. An examination report will be issued, indicating acceptance, refusal, or conditional acceptance, along with the reasons for the decision.

2.4 Step 4: Respond to the Examination Report

Upon receiving the examination report, a response must be filed within 30 days. This response should address any objections raised by the trademark office and include defenses and evidence to support your application. Failure to respond promptly may lead to the abandonment of your application.

2.5 Step 5: Post Examination Procedures

Depending on the situation, the Examiner might require additional clarification or arrange a hearing to resolve any remaining issues. Following examination, the Examiner can either accept the mark and send it for publication or reject the application if objections persist.

2.6 Step 6: Publication of the Trademark Application

In the event of acceptance, the trademark will be published in the Trademark Journal for a four-month duration. This publication allows third parties to review the application and file an opposition if they believe it infringes on their existing trademark rights. The Trademark Journal is updated every Monday with newly accepted trademark applications.

2.7 Step 7: Notice of Opposition

Within four months of publication, any party feeling their existing trademark rights are threatened can file a notice of opposition. This notice, submitted in Form TM-O, halts the registration process, initiating legal procedures to resolve the opposition.

2.8 Step 8: Registration

In the absence of opposition or after resolving it successfully, the trademark proceeds to registration. The trademark registry office will issue a registration certificate within seven days of the publication period’s conclusion. This certificate remains valid for ten years, necessitating renewal every decade to sustain the trademark’s validity.

2.9 Step 9: Renewal

Renewal is essential after ten years to maintain your trademark registration. File a renewal application before the registration’s expiry date to ensure its continuity. Neglecting timely renewal could result in the removal of your trademark from the register.

2.10 Step 10: Seek Professional Assistance

Although the trademark registration process is relatively straightforward, enlisting a trademark lawyer’s professional assistance is recommended. A trademark lawyer can offer guidance, navigate legal procedures, and manage potential challenges, ensuring a smooth and successful registration.

Section 3: Types of Trademarks in India

In India, trademarks can take various forms:

3.1 Word Marks

A word mark comprises specific words or word combinations, serving as brand names, slogans, or distinct business-associated terms. Registering a word mark confers extensive protection to the designated word, allowing its versatile use.

3.2 Logo Marks

Logo marks incorporate visual elements such as designs, symbols, or graphics. They visually represent your brand and enhance brand recognition. Registering a logo mark safeguards the unique visual representation associated with your business.

3.3 Composite Marks

Composite marks merge textual and visual elements, forming a distinct trademark. This category combines words and logos to create a holistic representation of your brand. Registering a composite mark secures both the textual and visual components in your trademark.

Costs Involved in Trademark Registration

Costs can vary, and the figures mentioned here are approximate values as of my last update in September 2021. Always verify with the official sources for the latest fees.

The cost breakdown for trademark registration in India can encompass:

  1. Trademark Search: The search cost can range from ₹500 to ₹1,000 (approximately).
  2. Trademark Application Filing: The government fee for online filing varies based on the applicant’s category and the number of classes. For an individual/startup/small enterprise, it’s around ₹4,500 for one class and approximately ₹9,000 for others. For physical filing, add postal charges and other expenses.
  3. Trademark Examination: There’s no separate fee for examination.
  4. Trademark Journal Publication: Around ₹5,000 to ₹10,000 (approximately) for each class.
  5. Notice of Opposition: If an opposition is filed, there’s a fee for defending the opposition, and this can vary.
  6. Registration: The government fee for online registration is approximately ₹10,000 for one class for individuals/startups/small enterprises and approximately ₹20,000 for others. Additional classes will incur extra fees.
  7. Renewal: The renewal fee can range from ₹5,000 to ₹10,000 (approximately) for each class.
  8. Professional Fees: If you choose to work with a trademark lawyer or agent, their fees will vary based on their experience and services.
  9. Miscellaneous Costs: This could include any additional expenses incurred during the process.


Registering a trademark is a pivotal step in establishing and safeguarding your brand identity. By meticulously following the step-by-step process outlined in this guide, you can effectively register your trademark in India. Prioritize conducting a comprehensive trademark search, filing the application accurately, responding effectively to objections or opposition, and renewing your registration when due. Engaging a proficient trademark lawyer can provide an extra layer of assurance throughout the registration journey. Ensuring your brand’s security through trademark registration not only furnishes legal protection but also bolsters credibility, contributing to your business’s enduring prosperity. But if you haven’t registered your business yet, you might be looking into company registration.

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